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【置顶】结肠癌: 微创,三种疗法联用治疗肿瘤

2016-08-03 00:00


Colorectal cancer: Minimally invasive, triple-therapy patch destroys tumors
结肠癌: 微创,三种疗法联用治疗肿瘤


 

Research released by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology describes an adhesive patch that can deliver a triple-combination of drug, gene, and light-based therapy to colorectal tumors.
由麻省理工学院发布的研究成果表明用一种能够提供药物、基因和光疗三联疗法的贴片可以用来治疗结肠癌。

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States. The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is 1 in 21 for men and 1 in 23 for women.
在美国,无论对于男性还是女性,直肠癌都是发病率第三高的常见癌症。男性的患病风险为1/21,女性的患病风险为1/23。

Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth, or tumor, on the inner lining of the colon or rectum called a polyp, and they can change to cancer over many years. Not all polyps become cancer.
大多数结肠癌刚开始是在结肠或直肠内表面生长出息肉,经数年后会变成肿瘤。并不是所有的息肉都能变成肿瘤。

It usually takes around 10-15 years for abnormal cells to grow into colorectal tumors. With regular screening, polyps can be removed before they develop into cancer.
这些异常细胞通常要经过10 – 15年时间才会变成结肠癌。只要定期筛查,息肉完全可以在它们变成结肠癌之前被移除。

Although the type of treatment for colorectal cancer largely depends on the stage of cancer, treatment options are often surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
尽管治疗结肠癌的方法是根据肿瘤的发展情况而定,但通常治疗手段都是手术、化疗和放疗。

Surgery can sometimes result in incomplete removal of the tumor, which can potentially lead to recurrence and an increase in the risk of spread of cancer to other organs. Tumors recur in around 50 percent of cases.
手术有时会造成肿瘤移除不彻底,这样就会有复发的可能性,也会增加转移到其它器官的风险。复发率为约50%左右。

Current therapies that are designed to prevent tumors repeatedly occurring are unable to tell the difference between cancerous cells and healthy cells, leading to severe side effects.
目前的治疗方法是为了阻止癌细胞重复生长,但不能分辨癌细胞和健康细胞,所以,导致副作用非常严重。

Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy drugs treat the body as a whole, and not a particular area, which often means that only a small amount reaches the tumor site - 0.7 percent in one study.
化疗药品是将整个身体作为作用对象,而不是特定区域。也就是说,只有很少一部分药作用于肿瘤区域 – 研究表明,药量至占总药量的0.7%。

The paper, published in Nature Materials, explains the ability of the triple-combination patch to administer treatment to the tumor site before or after surgery.
在Nature Materials发表的文献说明了用三联贴片可在术前或术后对肿瘤位点进行治疗。

Natalie Artzi, a research scientist at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES) and an assistant professor of medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital - who led the research - says that the patch dispenses the combination of three treatments locally at the tumor site, and it may increase the therapy's effectiveness.
Natalie Artzi是一位麻省理工学院医药工程科学(IMES)的科学家,同时也是布莱根妇女医院的药学副教授。她主导了这项研究,表明用贴片可将三种治疗方法同时局部作用于肿瘤位点,可以极大提高治疗效果。

She adds: "This means that we are treating both the source of the cancer - the tumor - and the metastases resulting from that source, in a suboptimal manner. That is what prompted us to think a little bit differently, to look at how we can leverage advancements in materials science, and in particular nanotechnology, to treat the primary tumor in a local and sustained manner."
她补充道:“这种方法不仅以较为适当的方式治疗癌症源头,肿瘤,同时也防止癌症从源头转移。这也促使我们转换思路,发挥材料科学的优势,尤其是纳米技术,用直接、持续的方法来治疗原发性肿瘤”

Three lines of therapy attack tumor, prevent recurrence
三种疗法并行治疗肿瘤,防止复发

The triple-therapy hydrogel patch treats any remaining cancer cells at the tumor site after surgery to prevent cancer from returning and spreading to other locations.
三联疗法水凝胶贴片可以用来治疗手术后肿瘤位点遗留下来的癌细胞,以阻止其复发或转移。

Gold nanorods - contained in the patch - heat up when near-infrared radiation is applied to the local area and destroys the tumor. A chemotherapy drug is then released to target the tumor and surrounding cells.
贴片中包含的金纳米棒附着到某局部区域时,可以产生近红外线使其发热,并摧毁肿瘤。然后化疗药物就会在目标肿瘤处释放并包围细胞。

The gold nanospheres that do not heat up in response to the near-infrared radiation deliver RNA-or gene therapy-to the site, which silences an important oncogene in colorectal cancer and forms the third and final line of treatment. Oncogenes are genes that can cause healthy cells to transform into tumor cells.
对进红外线响应并不加热的金纳米微球能够产生RNA – 或者说是基因疗法 – 直接作用于病灶,使结肠癌的致癌基因沉默,形成第三种、也是最后一种治疗。致癌基因是一种可将健康细胞变成癌细胞的基因。

Researchers foresee that the patch could be applied to the inner surface of the colon - after the tumor is removed - to safeguard against leftover cells and recurrence at the site. The patch will gradually release all three therapies as it degrades.
科研人员表示贴片可在肿瘤移除后直接将贴片贴到结肠的内表层的肿瘤位点上,以阻止遗留下来的癌细胞复发。贴片在其分解的同时可逐渐释放出三种疗法。

Artzi suggests that the patch could also help to shrink tumors before their removal.
Artzi还说这种贴片也可以在手术前使用,以缩小肿瘤。

Applying patch could help to avoid surgery
使用贴片可以避免手术

When the patch was applied after surgery in mice, the treatment resulted in complete remission. However, the team found that in 40 percent of cases where the patch was not applied after tumor removal, the cancer returned.
在对小鼠手术后使用贴片,疗效得到了根本的缓解。然而,研究人员发现,有40%的情况在肿瘤移除后贴片并无法贴合,导致癌症复发。

The most significant finding was that the triple combination therapy alone was enough to destroy the tumor without the need for surgery.
最有意义的发现是,无需手术,单独使用三联疗法贴片也可以治疗肿瘤。

"This administration modality would enable, at least in early stage cancer patients, the avoidance of open field surgery and colon resection. Local application of the triple therapy could thus improve patients' quality of life and therapeutic outcome." Natalie Artzi said.
Natalie Artzi说“至少对早期患者,这种治疗方法可以避免开放性手术和结肠切除。局部使用该贴片以提高患者的生活质量和治疗结果。”

Future work of the team will focus on experiments to use colonoscopy equipment to inject the patch to the site of a tumor.
这个研究队伍的下一步工作是,研究怎样用结肠镜设备将贴片投放到肿瘤位点上。




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